【英語多益通】自我隔離的英文怎麼說?從時事學多益

▲▼新冠肺炎 防疫 社交距離 速食店 座位隔離。(圖/記者屠惠剛攝)

▲ 新冠肺炎防疫採取的社交距離。(圖/記者屠惠剛攝)

文/Buffy Kao

隨著新冠肺炎疫情持續升溫,對全球經濟產生重大影響,也使美國失業人數創下歷史新高。各國政府紛紛祭出防疫措施,包括訂出社交距離、要求有感染風險的人自我隔離;中央流行疫情指揮中心日前也宣布,建議人與人之間應保持室內1.5公尺、室外1公尺的距離。今天就來看看與防疫措施相關的多益單字有哪些吧!

Social Distancing 社交距離

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Canceling events that are likely to draw crowds is an example of social distancing. Social distancing is deliberately increasing the physical space between people to avoid spreading illness. Staying at least six feet away from other people lessens your chances of catching COVID-19.
(取消有可能吸引大量人潮的活動是社交距離的一個例子。社交距離即是刻意地增加人與人之間的實際距離,以便避免散播疾病。與他人保持至少6英尺的距離可減少感染新冠肺炎的機率。)

distance (v.) 保持距離
這裡distance作為動詞使用,意指「保持距離」,也可作為名詞,如keep a distance,兩者差異是詞性不同。distant則是形容詞,意指「距離遙遠的」;還有個同義詞是remote,最近因應疫情流行的遠距教學/工作英文表達便是remote education/work,但不可用distant替換。

● deliberately (adv.) 故意地;刻意地
這個單字通常用於負面的語意表達。不過在a deliberate decision這個片語中,則有「審慎的;沈穩的」意思。此外deliberate也可當動詞用,表示「審慎考慮、仔細討論」,如:

The committee has deliberated the question at great length.
(委員會已經仔細討論過這個問題了。)

名詞型態則為deliberation,有「考慮、討論」之意。

● lessen (v.) 減少
這是less(較少)的動詞變化, less則是little這個形容詞的比較級,注意後面須接不可數名詞;相對的few-fewer要接可數名詞。同義詞有decrease(減少)。注意其發音和lesson(課程)相同,可從前後文判斷。

Self-quarantine 自我隔離

People who have been exposed to the new coronavirus and who are at risk for coming down with COVID-19 might practice self-quarantine. Health experts recommend that self-quarantine lasts 14 days. Two weeks provides enough time for them to know whether or not they will become ill and be contagious to other people.
(曾接觸過新冠病毒、以及有感染風險的人可能需要自我隔離。健康專家建議他們自我隔離14天。兩周讓當事者有足夠的時間來判斷他們是否會生病,或對他人有沒有感染風險。)

● expose (v.) 暴露
這裡的用法是被動態-be exposed to~「暴露在~(環境)下」,主動態通常用法為expose oneself to~,如:

Don’t expose yourself to the coronavirus.
(不要暴露在有新冠病毒的環境之下。)

名詞是exposure,介系詞與動詞相同都是to。另外也有「曝光(消息)」、「揭露(訊息)」的意思;而若直接將expose作為名詞使用,則是代表「令人震驚的曝光報導」。

● quarantine (n.) 隔離
可作為動詞和名詞使用,如:

The horse had to spend several months in quarantine when it reached Britain.
(那匹馬到達英國後要進行幾個月的隔離檢疫。)

注意介系詞要用in,表示「在隔離情況下」的意思。形容詞為quarantined,相反詞則是unquarantined。另一個形容詞quarantinable則是「可隔離的」。

● contagious (adj.) 會(接觸)感染的;有感染力的
名詞變化是contagion。「-ous」是常見的形容詞字尾,如dangerous(危險的)、infectious(有感染力的)等。contagious和infectious的差別在於前者強調「接觸性的感染」,英文解釋為「communicable by contact」;而後者則不一定限定於接觸感染,英文解釋為「a disease involving a microorganism that can be transmitted from one person to another only by a specific kind of contact」,可指藉由微生物傳染的疾病。

【多益模擬試題】

December 7, 2010/09/28
Global Magazine
385 Queens Ave.

To whom it may concern
I am writing to inform you that I would like to cancel my ____1.____ to Global Magazine effective on the next year issue. Although I would like to continue the subscription, I don't have much time to enjoy the magazine.
1. (A) verification
(B) subscription
(C) contribution
(D) collision

I would appreciate if you could please refund ____2.____ is left on my payment, if possible. Is there any procedure I have to take for a refund?
2. (A) in which
(B) that
(C) which
(D) whatever

I would also appreciate if you can give me a written ____3.____ about my cancellation of your Global magazine. If you have any questions about this matter, please let me know.
3. (A) confirmation
(B) accusation
(C) appointment
(D) claim

Sincerely Yours,
Nancy Brown

解析:

1. 正解為(B)。題意為「I am writing to inform you that I would like to cancel my ________ to Global Magazine effective on the next year issue.」(我寫這封信是想要告訴您,我希望在下期取消《全球雜誌》的______。)從信開頭的收件者Global Magazine可以看出寫信者的對象是一間雜誌社, issue則可以指雜誌的一期,而(A)意為「驗證」,(C)意為「捐獻」,(D)意為「碰撞」,因此判斷空格應選(B)「訂閱」。

2. 正解為(D)。題意「I would appreciate if you could please refund ________ is left on my payment」(如果您能退回________我帳目上的餘額,我將會非常感激。)空格要選適合的關係代名詞,寫信者希望對方能將帳目上剩下的所有款項全部退還,因此(D) whatever「任何剩下的款項」是較合理的選項。

3. 正解為(A)。題意「I would also appreciate if you can give me a written ________ about my cancellation of your Global magazine」如果你能提供一份手寫的_________載明我已取消訂閱《全球雜誌》,我也會不勝感激。)接在written後面,(B)為「指控」,(C)為「任命」,(D)為「索賠」,最合理的答案應該是(A)「確認書;證明書」。

延伸閱讀》在家上班防疫!來看遠距工作必學的10個多益關鍵字

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